Characteristics of wagons

Regardless of the type and purpose of each car consists of five main parts:

- serviceable parts;

- body;

- frame;

- brake equipment;

- shock-traction devices.

To the undercarriage of the car belongs Dolly, including the frame, wheel pairs, the upper part with the bearings, the details of the spring suspension, etc.

The body serves as a location for passengers or the packaging for the goods transported. He firmly established on the frame and on the device depends on the type of the transported in its load.

The frame of the car, being the basis of the body, consists of longitudinal and transverse beams are rigidly connected among themselves, and connects the part of the car, much less acting on his vertical and horizontal forces.

Braking equipment is used for the movement slowing or full stop of the train and hold it in place.

Shock-traction (автосцепные) devices are designed for coupling cars between themselves and with the engine, transmission of traction and compression forces arising in the train, and retention of the wagons within a certain distance from each other.

To compare different cars between the use of their technical and economic characteristics and parameters. The main of which are: carrying capacity, containers, ratio of packaging, specific volume, axle load, the load from wheelset to rail, per load and base.

Capacity - OST the maximum weight of cargo that can be put in this car. This quantity in tonnes affixed to the side walls of the body, the sides platforms, boilers tanks with oil paint in the required places.

Container wagon is called the total weight of the car in an empty condition. This quantity in tonnes marked on the frame of a wagon with both sides.

The coefficient of packaging indicates the share of the weight of an empty wagon, per 1 t of cargo at loading it up to full capacity. This meter characterizes the benefits of using cars of different types and is determined by dividing the packaging capacity.

Specific volume characterizes the capacity of the car. It shows the amount of body volume in cubic meters per 1 ton carrying capacity. So, for example, if a modern four-axle covered wagon has a body volume 120 cubic m., and its lifting capacity of 64 tons, then we obtain the 120:64=1,87. For platforms used the concept of the specific area, which is the result of dividing the floor area in square metres for carrying capacity.

Axle load is obtained by dividing the total weight of the wagon-container and load-carrying capacity (gross) less the weight of the wheel pairs on осность of the car.

Load from wheelset to rail is calculated by dividing the gross weight of the number of wheel pairs. This load at the present time is allowed not more than 215,7 kN (22 TS), and for certain types of wagons 245,11 kN (25 tons). The effectiveness of the car is also determined by linear or static load per 1 m of the way.

Per load is calculated by dividing gross weight of the car on the length of his on-axis clutch автосцепкой. For backbone links, the maximum value of this indicator is installed 78 kNm (8 TC/m) on the basis of the strength of bridges and other artificial constructions.

The base car is called the distance between the axes of the Pyatnikov. Wagons of various types, having a close by the value of the characteristics of some of the parameters and exactly the same individual nodes, nevertheless differ from one another in the main unit body.