Failure of wheel sets, ways to detect, prevent and eliminate

In operation for wheelsets having ralichnye defects that need to be identified and addressed in a timely manner (usually by replacing the wheelset).

Failure of wheel sets, such as sliders (potholes), Navara, uneven rolling easily detected at a meeting with the train track. The presence on the surface of the slide and riding Navara is for each revolution wheelset characteristic blow wheels on the rails.

Car tires is a natural consequence of the mechanical interaction with the rails and the wheels brake pads, resulting in worn wheel contour. Recovery profile riding reached at turning, but it reduces the thickness of the wheel rim. In the operation of the wheelset due to plastic deformation of the surface layers of the metal rim formed nodules on the outer face of the bevel wheel. If irregular beating of the box is the wheelset and, due to this increased and more frequent fluctuations spring group, heard pounding parts of the linkage parts truck and car frame, which results in a vibration of a bogie frame.

Rental measured absolute pattern at 70 mm from the inner edge of the wheel, ie in most of the wear on the rolling circle. To determine the size of the rental pattern is superimposed on the profile of the running surface of the wheel to align the vertical face pattern on the inside face of the wheel, and the support bracket rests on the top of the ridge. Lowering the foot to the measurement of contact with the running surface, rolled read on the vertical scale pattern. In the presence of non-uniform rental and is measured at several locations along the diameter wheels and recorded maximum value, and the difference between the maximum and minimum values.

The same pattern is measured at the surface of the slide ride. To install the template, as well as the measurement products. Measuring leg template drops vertically over the innermost slide. The depth of the slider is determined as the difference between the values ​​of deepening and rolled. At the same time measuring the stalk must be at a constant distance from the inner edge of the wheel rim.

Absolute template also measured the thickness of the ridge, which is measured at a distance of 18 mm from the top, with a horizontal engine and must be within the limits set out. But beyond that, the ridge may have a large vertical wear (undercut), which is defined by absence of the gap between the vertical face of a special template engine and paddle wheel at a height of 18 mm.

Also check wheelsets after stopping the train must be inspected for any size of transverse cracks and cavities in the hub, disk, ridge, rim wheels, axles. Dimensions rolled vyscherbiny circular openings on the running surface of the wheel, the depth of the surface spalling exterior of the rim and cleaned in the middle of the shaft, the thickness and width of the rim, the length of the longitudinal cracks, etc. should not exceed dopustimyx standards. For longitudinal cracks are those that are at an angle less than 30 degrees to the longitudinal axis of the generator, and to the cross - if this angle is 30 degrees. Signs of cracks are swelling paint over them, the concentration of frost and dust or rust in the form of a roller. To finally make sure there is a crack, a place suggested by its location should be carefully cleaned of frost, dust, rust and paint and check the magnetic probe. Evidence of a crack is detected in this case with the help of metal powders.

In addition to checking the magnetic probe and especially if the detected metal dust, place the examinee should be cleaned with a wire brush and carefully examine with a magnifying glass.

The thickness of the rim thickness gauge to measure the plane of the circle most wearing ski. Therefore, measuring leg is also set at a distance of 70 mm from the line. Template ruler pressed tightly against the inner edge of the wheel rim, and the ledge at the bottom line when it is put under the inside of the rim and then fed to the measuring foot contact with the tread wheel with the engine. The size of the thickness of the rim on a scale ruler.

Thickness gauge can be measured as the depth of sliders, vyscherbin, height Navara. The size of these defects are defined as the difference between the thickness of the rim at the locations of these defects and the thickness of the rim at the same distance from the inner edge of the wheel rim, but in a place where there are none.

When checking the technical condition of wheel sets should also look for signs of loosening and shifting of the wheel hub podstupichnoy axis. To weaken the hub indicates speaking rust or oil in connection with the hub axis, the gap around the perimeter of the paint of the compound. When shifting to the outside at the hub side appears narrow strip having a color which differs greatly from the color of the middle of the axis, and if the shift inside, paint is swelling around the hub wheelset.

Wagons with a detected fault is NOT permissible wheelset or out of tolerance, uncoupled from the train and head to gauge change. The exception is the fat that is in the freight trains, as well as in passenger seeking a maximum speed of 120 km / h, allowed to remove abrasive wheel. At the same place on stripped must be no cracks, and the deepening of no more than 0.5 mm, the transition from the buffed surface to unstripped to do smooth, deburred surface should be flush with surrounding areas defectless.