Сarload economy

The modern Park of cars is characterized by diversity of their types and structures, caused by the necessity to take into account and meet the different requirements of transportation of passengers and cargo.

According to its purpose, the cars are divided into two main groups - passenger and cargo and differ in: осности - four-, six-, eight - and многоосные; in material and manufacture of the body - all-metal, with wooden or metal, with individual riveted angles, but mainly welded; in carrying capacity, load from wheelset to rail, load per 1 m of the path, size of packaging, size; the size of a track - wide (1520 mm) on the roads of CIS and 1435 mm - on the foreign roads and narrow 1065 mm or 900 mm.

At the place of use of the cars are divided into public and industrial transport. Network-wide wagons shall have an access to the entire network of Railways of the country. Cars of industrial transport in view of the high axial loads, the increased size and design features used in industrial ways of closed areas. If the cars of industrial transport fully meet the standards for calculating the strength and design of cars main Railways, as well as the requirements of the Rules of technical started Railways, they are granted the right to enter on the path of the country.

Park of passenger cars consists of cars for transportation of passengers, cars-restaurants, mail, baggage and спецнального destination. Passenger cars equipped with devices of ventilation, heating and lighting, and toilet facilities.

The internal layout of passenger cars is different. In the Park there are open and treated cars with hard or soft sofas and chairs for sitting.

For passengers ' service there are cars, restaurants with a hall, kitchen, storage, refrigerators for products, which allows to arrange meals for passengers in transit; e-mail, Luggage, postal-baggage with rooms for sorting mail, storage, premises for the personnel, mechanisms for loading and unloading Luggage. Passenger вагонамн special purpose are cars-laboratories, offices, sanitary, cars, clubs, etc.

The Park of freight cars consists of a covered, open-top cars, platforms, tanks, isothermal and cars of special purposes. In covered wagons transported cargoes demanding protection against atmospheric precipitation, boxed packaging, grain, etc.

Gondolas are used for transportation of bulk cargoes, ores, coal, fluxes, sawn timber, containers, products of machine-building enterprises, not requiring protection from атмосферых precipitation.

On platforms transport large containers, motor vehicles, tractors, combines, long and bulky goods (products, wood products, construction materials and semi-finished products, wheeled agricultural machinery)In tanks transporting crude oil and petroleum products, acids, liquefied gases, etc.

Isothermal vans are used for transportation of perishable goods requiring the transport of a certain temperature (meat, fish, milk, fruits, etc.).

The required temperature inside the car is achieved with the help of refrigeration in refrigerator wagons or льдосоляной a mixture of cars glaciers.

Cars of special purposes allows to transport certain goods without packaging and to mechanize the process of unloading of cement, mineral fertilizers, grain, bitumen, motor vehicles, etc.). To this group also includes conveyors for transportation of cargoes weighing up to 500 tonnes. Special are also cars available for the execution of the ancillary works on the Railways (cars, workshop, cars subsidiary and fire-trains, etc.).