Wear and damage to the frames and their solutions

Most common faults frame freight car is the formation in them of various cracks and tears.

The cracks are usually found in the joints of the wall outlet and the end of the shock beams at center sill in the location of front and rear stops automatic coupling devices and between them, the welds connecting the pivot and the center sill. Cracks in the intermediate cross members are rare and mostly in cars.

Sign of the presence of cracks in the frame members cars, as in other sites, and details, is the congestion at source rollers dust, rust, frost in the winter, etc. Crack and break at the center sill is often preceded by its vertical deflection. Therefore, in four, six and eight freight cars, he allowed no more than 100 mm.

On the cliff pivot beam along its junction with the cap may indicate the absence of the gap in skolzunah respective ends of the pivot beam.

Viewer cars in their practical work at the PTO pay attention to the link between the state sill frame of the car and to the body in certain types of cars. Thus, an open gondola corner post in conjunction with the lower lateral strapping body is sign of a possible break sill in its articulation with the end beam, and break the pivot stands at the junction of the waist is a sign of a possible break in the sill area pyatnika or breach of welded joints it with the pivot beam. For open sill may indicate also break any intermediate stand or brace the body together with the connection of the waist. Breakage of one of the struts in the middle is usually the result of deflection sill above the permissible value.

Covered wagons have the same symptoms and increased fracture deflection sill, like gondolas.

In hopper cars of a possible fracture in the sill of the console shows an open angle or pivot pillars with their connection to the upper harness.

The causes of the elements in the frame of different cracks and fractures are a significant shock and impact, perceived cars, especially when their dissolution careless with slides.

In addition to cracks and fractures, frame certain types of cars may have significant corrosion damage. Corrosion of exposed space frame, badly painted in the repair of cars and car frame, the glaciers from the effects of saline and acid tanks frame of the acid.

Are not allowed to use cars, in the frame at least one of the following conditions:

break or crack that extends from the horizontal to the vertical wall of the shelves of the cap, side or end pivot beams, cracks in the joint hosts of the cap and a pivot beams (in the upper corner of the zeta sill) with a length of 120 mm;

- A longitudinal crack in the beam frame any longer than 300 mm;

- Vertical, longitudinal or floor cracks, if they are more than one hole for bolts or rivets;

- Break gon broken weld or rivet mounting more than one beam frame.

Frame carriages in service perceive significantly lower compressive and tensile loads than the same components in freight cars. However, the vertical and horizontal elements of channels, angles and box structure also cracks occur.

There are cracks in welds with transverse sill, especially with the end beams. In the end beams are possible dents and bends in the field installation of buffer sets. In the frame elements of coaches have the corrosion damage due to violation of anti-corrosion coatings and the use of metal, not resistant to corrosion. As well as the freight cars, all-metal frame carriages wear out at the locations absorbing devices, and if the pureed more acceptable, detach a car in for repair. Observed weakening of fasteners stops automatic coupling device deflections frame members carriages. Since pivot beam deflection allows a maximum of 50 mm, end-beams in the horizontal plane - no more than 30 mm and the transverse frames in the horizontal plane - no more than 20 mm in the vertical plane - no more than 30 mm.

Troubleshooting frames is time-consuming operation that requires a significant investment of time. Therefore, at the current frame repair ottsepochnom repair (TR-I and TR-2), and perform only the following work: welding cracks and fractures, lugs welded loops hatches and gondolas, support brackets for face sides platforms etc. However, be aware that welding operations require preparation with cutting of welds and weld seams must be made available for this purpose. Parts which are under load, before repair welding should be relieved of her actions to avoid distortion and warping.

Before welding cracks eliminate deflection beam frame. If minor deflections, they eliminate the cold-straightening machines, but most of it is done with prior local kerosene heater or gas burner operating on propane. When heated beams should be taken fire, isolating steel roofing sheets and asbestos all the wooden parts that can catch fire or charred. Beam frame rule using the car-repair machinery and various tools and mechanisms (clamps, couplers, jacks, etc.).

Before you make a crack in the frame beams, it is necessary to drill holes in the ends of the crack with a diameter equal to the thickness of the metal, and the edges to cut weld cracking. Not through the crack with a chisel cut down on their full depth, and cut up the through the entire thickness of the metal at an angle of 60-65 degrees. When cutting non-through cracks sign of its disappearance is to stop splitting chips, chop down a chisel along the location of the crack. Then proceed to welding.

Transverse cracks in the horizontal shelves of longitudinal and transverse beams frame brewed with the production of reinforcing corner pads, and if the crack goes to the vertical wall beams, the reinforcing corner pads put two or one trough-shaped. In the case of the crack to a large part of the beam section pose two reinforcing plates - one trough-shaped, welded into the beam, and the second flat is welded on the outside wall of the vertical beam. Longitudinal cracks on the vertical wall of the beam after welding reinforcing flat cover plate thickness not less than 0.8 wall thickness beam. In all cases, the reinforcing plates welded to cover the crack on each side of not less than 100mm.

Previously welded plates in which cracks are not repaired and replaced.

Mashed on beams and frames corroded parts for passenger and freight cars eliminate, as a rule, depot and factory repair due to the complexity of work.